[898] The historian and archival researcher Stephen G. Wheatcroft and Michael Ellman attribute roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist regime, including executions and deaths from criminal negligence. Livre terrifiant que tous ceux qui louent Staline (toujours en Georgie où un ministre a comparé Staline (sa mere, dont j'ai vu la tombe grandiose, travaillait pour mon arrière grand mere mingrelienne qui a payé les études du fiston au séminaire) à mon arrière grand oncle.Napoleon. [253], — Lenin's Testament, 4 January 1923;[254] this was possibly composed by Krupskaya rather than Lenin himself. Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, ministère des Affaires étrangères (Union soviétique), Ministère des Affaires étrangères (Union soviétique), Ministres des Affaires étrangères de Russie et d’URSS, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Liste_des_ministres_soviétiques_chargés_des_affaires_étrangères&oldid=171609622, Article contenant un appel à traduction en russe, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, Portail:Relations internationales/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [555] Germany was divided into four zones: Soviet, U.S., British, and French, with Berlin itself—located within the Soviet area—also subdivided thusly. [551] Soviet forces continued to expand until they occupied all their territorial concessions, but the U.S. rebuffed Stalin's desire for the Red Army to take a role in the Allied occupation of Japan. [651] He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. [691] During the period of his revolutionary activity, Stalin regarded some of Lenin's views and actions as being the self-indulgent activities of a spoiled émigré, deeming them counterproductive for those Bolshevik activists based within the Russian Empire itself. "[591] He personally took a keen interest in the development of the weapon. [326] Stalin barred kulaks from joining these collectives. [231] Stalin lost the argument, after which he accepted Lenin's decision and supported it. [510] This resulted in the protracted Battle of Stalingrad. [483] The German Wehrmacht pushed deep into Soviet territory;[484] soon, Ukraine, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states were under German occupation, and Leningrad was under siege;[485] and Soviet refugees were flooding into Moscow and surrounding cities. [378] Social unrest, previously restricted largely to the countryside, was increasingly evident in urban areas, prompting Stalin to ease on some of his economic policies in 1932. [446] The Terror damaged the Soviet Union's reputation abroad, particularly among sympathetic leftists. [571] In the war's aftermath, some of Stalin's associates suggested modifications to government policy. 270, Stalin commanded soldiers risking capture to fight to the death describing the captured as traitors;[493] among those taken as a prisoner of war by the Germans was Stalin's son Yakov, who died in their custody. Toute activité de la société est contrôlée par l’État et toute opposition à cet État est éliminée. [182] Stalin became part of an informal foursome leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov;[183] of these, Sverdlov was regularly absent and died in March 1919. [231] Stalin had cautioned against this; he believed that nationalism would lead the Polish working-classes to support their government's war effort. Stalin and fellow senior Bolshevik Leon Trotsky both endorsed Lenin's plan of action, but it was initially opposed by Kamenev and other party members. Les années précédentes, son Reich était en expansion constante : l'Anschluss de l'Autriche (mars 1938), l'annexion des Sudètes en Tchécoslovaquie (septembre 1938), l'occupation des restes de la Tchécoslovaquie (mars 1939). [243] In taking this view, some Marxists accused him of bending too much to bourgeois nationalism, while others accused him of remaining too Russocentric by seeking to retain these nations within the Russian state. [501] He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely. [476] Although de facto head of government for a decade and a half, Stalin concluded that relations with Germany had deteriorated to such an extent that he needed to deal with the problem as de jure head of government as well: on 6 May, Stalin replaced Molotov as Premier of the Soviet Union. [161] There, Stalin and fellow Bolshevik Lev Kamenev assumed control of Pravda,[162] and Stalin was appointed the Bolshevik representative to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, an influential council of the city's workers. [736] His mustached face was pock-marked from smallpox during childhood; this was airbrushed from published photographs. [690] The new state would then be able to ensure that all citizens had access to work, food, shelter, healthcare, and education, with the wastefulness of capitalism eliminated by a new, standardised economic system. [88] In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire. [453] Stalin initiated a military build-up, with the Red Army more than doubling between January 1939 and June 1941, although in its haste to expand many of its officers were poorly trained. Cette bureaucratisation a progressivement confisqué le pouvoir des mains des soviet… [642] That same month, a much publicised trial of accused Jewish industrial wreckers took place in Ukraine. [889] Under Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet administration various previously classified files on Stalin's life were made available to historians,[889] at which point Stalin became "one of the most urgent and vital issues on the public agenda" in the Soviet Union. [927] Polling by the Levada Center suggest Stalin's popularity has grown since 2015, with 46% of Russians expressing a favourable view of him in 2017 and 51% in 2019. La mort de Staline offre à cet égard un terrain de jeu idéal à Iannucci, qui laisse libre cours à son goût marqué pour l’humour noir. By January 1953, three percent of the Soviet population was imprisoned or in internal exile, with 2.8 million in "special settlements" in isolated areas and another 2.5 million in camps, penal colonies, and prisons. [553] At the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe. [381] The second five-year plan had its production quotas reduced from that of the first, with the main emphasis now being on improving living conditions. [260] Another disagreement came over the Georgian affair, with Lenin backing the Georgian Central Committee's desire for a Georgian Soviet Republic over Stalin's idea of a Transcaucasian one. [556] Various East European communists also visited Stalin in Moscow. In this he recalled the 1825 Decembrist Revolt by Russian soldiers returning from having defeated France in the Napoleonic Wars. [756] After 1932, he favoured holidays in Abkhazia, being a friend of its leader, Nestor Lakoba. [864] For most Westerners and anti-communist Russians, he is viewed overwhelmingly negatively as a mass murderer;[864] for significant numbers of Russians and Georgians, he is regarded as a great statesman and state-builder. [198] Socialist revolutionaries accused Stalin's talk of federalism and national self-determination as a front for Sovnarkom's centralising and imperialist policies. [914] In 1956, Khrushchev gave his "Secret Speech", titled "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", to a closed session of the Party's 20th Congress. [369], Stalin faced problems in his family life. [342] New mines were opened, new cities like Magnitogorsk constructed, and work on the White Sea-Baltic Canal begun. [173] In the early hours of 25 October, Stalin joined Lenin in a Central Committee meeting in the Smolny Institute, from where the Bolshevik coup—the October Revolution—was directed. [763] Other historians linked his brutality not to any personality trait, but to his unwavering commitment to the survival of the Soviet Union and the international Marxist–Leninist cause. [320] In January 1930, the Politburo approved the liquidation of the kulak class; accused kulaks were rounded up and exiled to other parts of the country or to concentration camps. [611] At the second Cominform conference, held in Bucharest in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western capitalism. [440] His motives in doing so have been much debated by historians. [462] On 28 September, Germany and the Soviet Union exchanged some of their newly conquered territories; Germany gained the linguistically Polish-dominated areas of Lublin Province and part of Warsaw Province while the Soviets gained Lithuania. [44] Stalin left the seminary in April 1899 and never returned. [714] Stalin argued that the Jews possessed a "national character" but were not a "nation" and were thus unassimilable. [837] Stalin married twice and had several offspring. [920] Gorbachev saw the total denunciation of Stalin as necessary for the regeneration of Soviet society. [283] Stalin saw Trotsky—whom he personally despised[284]—as the main obstacle to his dominance within the party. [917] Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd. The real motivation for the terror, according to Harris, was an excessive fear of counterrevolution. [921] After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the first President of the new Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, continued Gorbachev's denunciation of Stalin but added to it a denunciation of Lenin. [892] Socialist writers like Volkogonov have acknowledged that Stalin's actions damaged "the enormous appeal of socialism generated by the October Revolution". [652] He was moved onto a couch and remained there for three days. [214], In December 1918, Stalin was sent to Perm to lead an inquiry into how Alexander Kolchak's White forces had been able to decimate Red troops based there. [719] In private he used coarse language, although avoided doing so in public. [36], Stalin joined a forbidden book club at the school;[37] he was particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?. [277] Stalin had much contact with young party functionaries,[278] and the desire for promotion led many provincial figures to seek to impress Stalin and gain his favour. [293] At the 14th Party Congress in December, they launched an attack against Stalin's faction, but it was unsuccessful. [654] Stalin died on 5 March 1953. Whereas Lenin believed that all countries across Europe and Asia would readily unite as a single state following proletariat revolution, Stalin argued that national pride would prevent this, and that different socialist states would have to be formed; in his view, a country like Germany would not readily submit to being part of a Russian-dominated federal state. [511] In December 1942, he placed Konstantin Rokossovski in charge of holding the city. [707] Following Lenin's death, Stalin contributed to the theoretical debates within the Communist Party, namely by developing the idea of "Socialism in One Country". Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to retain the churches it had opened during the war. [398] A number of authorised Stalin biographies were also published,[399] although Stalin generally wanted to be portrayed as the embodiment of the Communist Party rather than have his life story explored. [555] He also pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. Siberian pensioner IS grandson of Josef Stalin, DNA test reveals. This is what our obligations before the workers and peasants of the USSR dictate to us. [793], — U.S. ambassador W. Averell Harriman[794], Keenly interested in the arts,[795] Stalin admired artistic talent. [133] In January 1913, Stalin travelled to Vienna,[134] where he researched the 'national question' of how the Bolsheviks should deal with the Russian Empire's national and ethnic minorities. Stalin, Trotsky, Sverdlov, and Lenin lived at the Kremlin. Enorme aveu d’un ministre belge : pas de contamination dans les commerces, on les a fermés pour faire peur Coup de gueule du jour covid 19 Publié le 2 décembre 2020 - par Christine Tasin - 21 commentaires [46] He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory[47] and co-organised a secret workers' mass meeting for May Day 1900,[48] at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. [396] In 1938, The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), colloquially known as the Short Course, was released;[397] Conquest later referred to it as the "central text of Stalinism". Written in response to public revelations of the 1939 Soviet alliance with Germany, it focused on blaming Western powers for the war. [382], The Soviet Union experienced a major famine which peaked in the winter of 1932–33;[383] between five and seven million people died. [494] Stalin issued Order No. [580] In 1949, he brought Nikita Khrushchev from Ukraine to Moscow, appointing him a Central Committee secretary and the head of the city's party branch. [452] Militarily, the Soviets also faced a threat from the east, with Soviet troops clashing with the expansionist Japanese in the latter part of the 1930s.