Frederick II of Prussia (who became Maria Theresa's greatest rival for most of her reign) promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. Four years later, Maria Theresa's governess, Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard, died. [128], Following her fiftieth birthday in May 1767, Maria Theresa contracted smallpox from her daughter-in-law, Maria Josepha of Bavaria, the consort of Emperor Joseph II. Maria Theresa, then in Hungary, wept on learning of the loss of Bohemia. The council of state lacked executive or legislative authority, but nevertheless showed the difference between the form of government employed by Frederick II of Prussia. [83], In the third decade of her reign, influenced by her Jewish courtier Abraham Mendel Theben, Maria Theresa issued edicts that offered some state protection to her Jewish subjects. Francis Stephen was inclined to consider such an arrangement, but the Queen and her advisers were not, fearing that any violation of the Pragmatic Sanction would invalidate the entire document. She received a ring that her father had been wearing as he climbed the scaffold. [107], Prussian ambassador's letter to Frederick II of Prussia[108], The centralization of the Habsburg government necessitated the creation of a unified legal system. Unlike France, the kingdom of Spain had no Salic Law, so it was possible for a female to assume the throne. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well. [147][148] Her longtime rival Frederick the Great, on hearing of her death, said that she had honored her throne and her sex, and though he had fought against her in three wars, he never considered her his enemy. [152] She centralised and modernised the institutions, and her reign was considered as the beginning of the era of "enlightened absolutism" in Austria, with a brand new approach towards governing: the measures undertaken by rulers became more modern and rational, and thoughts were given to the welfare of the state and the people. [62], Prussian ambassador's letter to Frederick the Great[g], The Treaty of Breslau of June 1742 ended hostilities between Austria and Prussia. Even though Francis Stephen was his favourite candidate for Maria Theresa's hand,[16] the Emperor considered other possibilities. Richly illustrated with portraits of imperial sovereigns and their cabinet ministers' with biographical sketches (1863) (14583680887).jpg 2,064 × 1,420; 241 KB Britannica Explores 100 Women Trailblazers Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. Walker, Un Crime Parfait : L'assassinat De Detlev Rohwedder, Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche Saison 2 VOSTFR, Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche Saison 1 VOSTFR. [110], She was particularly concerned with the sexual morality of her subjects. CGB CONTINUES TO HANDLE YOUR DELIVERIES! Unlike the latter, Maria Theresa was not an autocrat who acted as her own minister. Acquista online Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche di Joëlle Chevé in formato: Ebook nella sezione eBook su Mondadori Store Queen Elisabeth of Spain and Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, married to Maria Theresa's deprived cousin Maria Amalia and supported by Empress Wilhelmine Amalia, coveted portions of her inheritance. She used them as pawns in dynastic games and sacrificed their happiness for the benefit of the state. [i], In April 1770, Maria Theresa's youngest daughter, Maria Antonia, married Louis, Dauphin of France, by proxy in Vienna. Du 15 mars au 29 novembre 2017, le Musée du meuble de Vienne, le Musée des Carrosses Impériaux, le Schloss Hof et le château de Niederweiden en Basse-Autriche retraceront la vie de Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche à l’occasion de son 300 e anniversaire au cours de l’exposition "Le Mythe Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche". Beaubrun: Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, reine de France. N°: 468 . La grenade est un symbole de fertilité, non seulement dans la Bible mais aussi dans de nombreuses cultures. With the First Silesian War at an end, the Queen soon made the recovery of Bohemia her priority. Versailles – La série; Marie-Thérèse de France, Madame Royale / No Comments. Beautiful publication printed at the time on handmade paper. [86] The expulsion orders were only retracted in 1748 due to pressures from other countries, including Great Britain. [131] She described her state of mind shortly after Francis's death: "I hardly know myself now, for I have become like an animal with no true life or reasoning power. Thus, she established a Chastity Commission (Keuschheitskommission) in 1752[111] to clamp down on prostitution, homosexuality, adultery and even sex between members of different religions. [22], The Duchess of Lorraine's love for her husband was strong and possessive. [24][25] She was very jealous of her husband and his infidelity was the greatest problem of their marriage,[26] with Maria Wilhelmina, Princess of Auersperg, as his best-known mistress. It was in Joseph's interest that she remained sovereign, for he often blamed her for his failures and thus avoided taking on the responsibilities of a monarch. X Schliessen. It was an elaborate public event which served as a formal recognition and legitimation of her accession. It is hardly credible how many books and productions of every species, and in every language, are proscribed by her. By 26 November, she asked for the last rites, and on 28 November, the doctor told her that the time had come. [149] With her death, the House of Habsburg died out and was replaced by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Français. None. They exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna (1731), Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. [14], The question of Maria Theresa's marriage was raised early in her childhood. Maria Theresa, who had become close to Francis Stephen, was relieved. [98] She also refounded the Hofkammer in 1762, which was a ministry of finances that controlled all revenues from the monarchy. I just try to avoid public scandal. She detests Your Majesty, but acknowledges your ability. [96] Thanks to this effort, by 1760 there was a class of government officials numbering around 10,000. Fille de l’empereur Charles VI, Marie-Thérèse de Habsbourg accède, en 1740, au trône austro-hongrois à 23 ans. [39] Frederick even offered a compromise: he would defend Maria Theresa's rights if she agreed to cede to him at least a part of Silesia. Austria had to leave the Prussian territories that were occupied. Jump to navigation Jump to search. [112], In 1776, Austria outlawed torture, particularly at the behest of Joseph II. One of the most important aspects of Jansenism was the advocation of maximum freedom of national churches from Rome. Lesen Sie „Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche Epouse de Louis XIV“ von Joëlle Chevé erhältlich bei Rakuten Kobo. [142], A few years after the partition, Russia defeated the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). The eldest surviving daughters of Maria Theresa's children were, In German: Maria Theresia von Gottes Gnaden Heilige Römische Kaiserinwitwe, Königin zu Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien, Gallizien, Lodomerien, usw., Erzherzogin zu Österreich, Herzogin zu Burgund, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Crain, Großfürstin zu Siebenbürgen, Markgräfin zu Mähren, Herzogin zu Braband, zu Limburg, zu Luxemburg und zu Geldern, zu Württemberg, zu Ober- und Nieder-Schlesien, zu Milan, zu Mantua, zu Parma, zu Piacenza, zu Guastala, zu Auschwitz und Zator, Fürstin zu Schwaben, gefürstete Gräfin zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, zu Hennegau, zu Kyburg, zu Görz und zu Gradisca, Markgräfin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, zu Burgau, zu Ober- und Nieder-Lausitz, Gräfin zu Namur, Frau auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mecheln, Herzoginwitwe zu Lothringen und Baar, Großherzoginwitwe zu Toskana, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, Maximilian Francis, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard, Declaratory Rescript of the Illyrian Nation, Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen, "Pragmatic Sanction of Emperor Charles VI", "Making Maria Theresia 'King' Of Hungary", "What made Austria's Maria Theresa a one-of-a-kind ruler", "Maria Theresa: the empress who left a mixed impression on the Czech lands – Radio Prague", "Illyrian privileges and the Romanians from the Banat", Maria Theresa, (1717–1780) Archduchess of Austria (1740–1780) Queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–1780), Archduchess Maria Anna, Abbess of Imperial and Royal Convent for Noble Ladies, Archduchess Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maria_Theresa&oldid=993095910, Knights of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Grand Mistresses of the Order of the Starry Cross, Recipients of the Order of Saint Catherine, 18th-century women of the Holy Roman Empire, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 19:33. [74] Subsequently, Prussia was defeated at Hochkirch in Saxony on 14 October 1758, at Kunersdorf in Brandenburg on 12 August 1759, and at Landeshut near Glatz in June 1760. Austria -- Kings and rulers -- Biography. Imperial courts of France, England, Russia, Prussia, Sardinia, and Austria. She disliked Leopold's reserve and often blamed him for being cold. [85] Despite this, practical, demographic and economic considerations prevented her from expelling the Protestants en masse. [116] Maria Theresa herself might have wanted the schools to teach Catholic orthodoxy, but the curriculum focused on social responsibility, social discipline, work ethic and the use of reason rather than mere rote learning. Maria Theresa had another loss in February 1766 when Haugwitz died. The goal was to ensure that peasants not only could support themselves and their family members, but also help cover the national expenditure in peace or war. Not without much hesitation and regret, she issued a decree that removed them from all the institutions of the monarchy, and carried it out thoroughly. The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche (1717-1780) Usato nelle seguenti pagine di ja.wikipedia.org: Her first intention was to deport all Jews by 1 January, but having accepted the advice of her ministers, who were concerned by the number of future deportees that could reach 50,000, had the deadline postponed to June. MARIE-THÉRÈSE D'AUTRICHE Émission de 1682 1682 fjt_453407 Jetons. Kunstdruck, Leinwandbild, gerahmtes Bild, Glasbild und Tapete. E-shops. [144] This alarmed Frederick II of Prussia, and thus the War of Bavarian Succession erupted in 1778. She is most unusually ambitious and hopes to make the House of Austria more renowned than it has ever been. [80] Although Maria Theresa was a very pious person, she also enacted policies that suppressed exaggerated display of piety, such as the prohibition of public flagellantism. Those reforms were initiated by royal patents, known as Regulamentum privilegiorum (1770) and Regulamentum Illyricae Nationis (1777), and finalized in 1779 by the Declaratory Rescript of the Illyrian Nation, a comprehensive document that regulated all major issues relating to religious life of Eastern Orthodox subjects and administration of the Metropolitanate of Karlovci. She suffered from shortness of breath, fatigue, cough, distress, necrophobia and insomnia. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Marie Thérèse D'autriche in höchster Qualität. Maria Theresa, desperate and burdened by pregnancy, wrote plaintively to her sister: "I don't know if a town will remain to me for my delivery. She controlled the selection of archbishops, bishops and abbots. Religious differences prevented him from arranging his daughter's marriage to the Protestant prince Frederick of Prussia. "[116] Previously, the existing primary schools were run by various orders of the Catholic Church. [36] Despite her love for him and his position as co-ruler, Maria Theresa never allowed her husband to decide matters of state and often dismissed him from council meetings when they disagreed. [83] She was probably the most anti-Jewish monarch of her time, having inherited the traditional prejudices of her ancestors and acquired new ones. Maße: Länge: 79,5 cm; Höhe: 115,0 cm . MARIE-THÉRÈSE D'AUTRICHE 1667 fjt_222418 Jetons. Furthermore, she significantly reduced the number of religious holidays and monastic orders. Leopold Clement of Lorraine was first considered to be the appropriate suitor, and he was supposed to visit Vienna and meet the Archduchess in 1723. Romantische Szene von jungem Louis XIV und von Königin Maria Theresa von Österreich. She also promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, pe Maria Tereza Spagn (1638-1683), priñsez spagnol, pried da Loeiz XIV, rouanez Bro-C'hall; Marie-Thérèse, anv gallek Maria Theresia (1717–1780), Impalaerez santel,; Marie Thérèse Spagn (1726–1746), priñsez spagnol, daofinez Bro-C'hall, marvet er gwilioud da ugent vloaz, he merc'h, Marie-Thérèse Bro-C'hall (1746-1748), marvet da zaou vloaz; She was educated in drawing, painting, music and dancing – the disciplines which would have prepared her for the role of queen consort. Autor(en): Jean-Paul Bled; Verlag: Perrin; Sammlung/Reihe: Tempus; N° 468 ISBN: 9782262039257. She was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would later learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. File:Les Reines de France- Marie de Médicis, Anne d'Autriche, Marie Thérèse d'Autriche, Marie Leczinska, Marie Antoinette, Marie Joséphine de Savoie et Marie Thérèse Charlotte de France.jpg. [137] Sometimes, she openly admired his talents and achievements, but she was also not hesitant to rebuke him. The invasion of Silesia by Frederick was the start of a lifelong enmity; she referred to him as "that evil man". Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche Saison 2 VF 2017 Fille de l’empereur Charles VI, Marie-Thérèse de Habsbourg accède, en 1740, au trône austro-hongrois à 23 ans. Marie-Thérèse de France. beide sitzen auf einem Schwanenhalsmeridian. [94][101] These financial reforms greatly improved the economy. Datum: etwa 1772 Technik: Öl auf Leinwand. [125] Maria Theresa asserted that, had she not been almost always pregnant, she would have gone into battle herself. Although this law came into force in Austria and Bohemia, it was not valid in Hungary. Maria Theresa blamed herself for her daughter's death for the rest of her life because, at the time, the concept of an extended incubation period was largely unknown and it was believed that Maria Josepha had caught smallpox from the body of the late empress. [63] French troops fled Bohemia in the winter of the same year. Français : Portrait en pied de Marie-Thérèse de Habsbourg, impératrice d'Autriche, en costume de veuve, présentant les couronnes de Bohème, de Hongrie, et la couronne impériale. Maria Theresa and Kaunitz wished to exit the war with possession of Silesia. 29 juil. Name: Marie-Thérèse de Croy (née d'Autriche) Born: 10 September 1617 (Madrid, Spain) Traits: Reserved, Shy, Insecure, Caring, Devoted, Discreet, Dutiful, Hesitant Romantic History: None Husband: Crown Prince Jean-Gaston de Croy, Dauphin de France Parents: Philip IV of Spain and Élisabeth de France Aspiration: Family Character Alignment: Good Rank: Princess, Dauphine de France [145] Although Austria managed to gain the Innviertel area, this "Potato War" caused a setback to the financial improvement that the Habsburg had made. Subsequently, Maria Theresa sent Georg Adam, Prince of Starhemberg to negotiate an agreement with France, and the result was the First Treaty of Versailles of 1 May 1756. [124], Over the course of twenty years, Maria Theresa gave birth to sixteen children, thirteen of whom survived infancy. [127] A devoted but self-conscious mother, she wrote to all of her children at least once a week and believed herself entitled to exercise authority over her children regardless of their age and rank. These plans were forestalled by his death from smallpox. Thus, in nomenclature, Maria Theresa was archduke and king; normally, however, she was styled as queen. On 12 May 1743, Maria Theresa had herself crowned Queen of Bohemia in St. Vitus Cathedral. "[56] She bitterly vowed to spare nothing and no one to defend her kingdom when she wrote to the Bohemian chancellor, Count Philip Kinsky: "My mind is made up. Podewils wrote detailed descriptions of Maria Theresa's physical appearance and how she spent her days. Maria Theresa kept up a fortnightly correspondence with Maria Antonia, now called Marie Antoinette, in which she often reproached her for laziness and frivolity and scolded her for failing to conceive a child. The central government was responsible for the army, although Haugwitz instituted taxation of the nobility, who never before had to pay taxes. Verfügbar Genauer Wortlaut Nur im Titel. [38], In December, Frederick II of Prussia invaded the Duchy of Silesia and requested that Maria Theresa cede it, threatening to join her enemies if she refused. Marie-Thérèse had hoped to marry the Duke of Angoûleme, her cousin and also her parents’ choice. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma. "[34], Maria Theresa found herself in a difficult situation.